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Thread: Fungi

  1. #121

  2. #122
    Some Plants May Depend More On Friendly Fungi Than Own Leaves: Study

    Researchers have found that plants need the help of friendly fungi to thrive more than it depends on the quality of its own leaves, and on bacteria that adds nitrogen nutrients to the soil.

    The researchers, including those from the University of Tennessee in the US, found that certain root-associated, or mycorrhizal, fungi that associate firmly with the cells in plant roots are one of the largest influences on plant tissue nutrient concentrations.

    The study, published in the journal PNAS, noted that there are two main types of mycorrhizal fungi—arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal.

    An arbuscular mycorrhiza, the researchers said, penetrates the cells in the outer layer of the roots of a plant.

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, they said, do not penetrate the plant’s cell walls, instead forming a netlike structure around the plant root.

    According to the researchers, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased plant nutrient concentrations in plant leaves, litter, and roots more than the non-penetrating counterparts, and has more influence on a plant’s nutrient levels than plant leaf traits, or plant associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    The researchers said that plants live in symbiosis with the root associated fungi which provide up to 80 per cent of the nutrients and water a plant needs to grow.

    They added that up to 30 per cent of the food substance the plants make through photosynthesis is needed by the fungi.

    “To optimize plant nutrition, we need to incorporate mycorrhizal associations into our agricultural and management frameworks,” said study co-author Stephanie Kivlin from the University of Tennessee.

  3. #123

  4. #124
    Demand for mushrooms skyrockets as the West catches up on the rest of the world: Nammex president

    With sales of mushroom containing dietary supplements growing year-on-year by as much as 40%, and food and beverage companies getting in on the act, demand for the fungi has been “unreal”, says Jeff Chilton, President of Nammex Organic Mushroom Extracts.

  5. #125

  6. #126
    France: “It is as if the boletus of the past few years all grew in just one year”

    It is an exceptional campaign for the wild mushroom in terms of volumes in France, according to William Trapon of Trapon Champignons. Especially when it comes to the boletus, which came out of the ground in large numbers. “The last three or four years were difficult because volumes were small. This year, it is as if the boletus of the past few years all grew in just one year.”

    Trapon Champignons commercialized boletus mushrooms non-stop for nearly three months. “It is nice to see this French product again in such large numbers. Besides, the quality is also there.” “Unlike in France, volumes are low in Eastern Europe for this campaign.

    With the arrival of the cold, the boletus slowly comes to an end and Trapon Champignons starts marketing winter products, such as the grey and yellow chanterelles, or the sweet tooth mushroom. “With the rains of the past three weeks, we hope to have an interesting campaign until the end of the year.” Trapon Champignons completes the French production with golden chanterelles from the United States and Canada.

    William claims that there are still a lot of mushrooms in the forests. “When there are a lot of mushrooms in the forests, there is enough for everyone. Many places are inaccessible in the large forests, and I believe that we don’t even pick one tenth of what is out there.”

  7. #127
    Italy’s white truffle hunters worry about climate change

    Rising global temperatures are worrying truffle hunters around in the Italian town of Alba, where the most prized specimens can fetch twice the price of gold.

    The longer-term impact of rising temperatures on the highly prized white truffles is still being studied, but they, like other fungi, grow best in cool, rainy conditions. Climate change has in effect delayed peak production from October into November.

    “It has been a few years that we have been worrying about truffle production,” said Antonio Degiacomi, president of Italy’s national center for truffle studies. “We have had over the last three seasons one terrible year, one excellent season and one that is decent.”

    To stave off the longer-term climate change impact on the production of the highly prized white truffle, experts have launched initiatives to better preserve the territory where they grow. The goal is to safeguard the symbiosis between the truffle and the host plant by encouraging symbiosis between the truffle hunter and the land owner — whose interests often conflict.

  8. #128

  9. #129
    "Supply of mushrooms lower, considerable shortage expected around Christmas"

    The mushroom trade is good for this time of year. "I think it is at least as good as this period last year," says Tonny Hooijmans of Oke Trading from Velddriel. “At present, the supply of mushrooms is somewhat lower, as the whole of Europe is lagging somewhat behind in production. Between 0-10% less is produced than normal. "

  10. #130
    Iran’s Daily Mushroom Exports Hit 20 Tons

    Iran exports 20 tons of mushrooms daily, according to the chairman of the board of the Union of Mushroom Producers, Mohammad Hassan Afshar.

    “Iraq and Persian Gulf littoral states are the main customers of Iranian mushrooms,” the official was quoted as saying by ILNA.

    He added that mushroom growers in Iran are operating at half their actual capacity.

    "Iran has the capacity to export 60,000 tons of mushrooms per year," he said.

    “Iran’s mushroom output is predicted to reach 180,000 tons by the end of the current fiscal year [March 19, 2020].”

    Last year's (March 2018-19) production stood at 152,000 tons.

    According to Afshar, Iran is the world's sixth biggest producer of edible mushrooms.

    The average export price of Iranian mushroom is $2 per kilogram while the global average is $2.5 per kilogram.

    Currently, there are 900 edible mushroom producers in Iran, providing jobs for more than 10,000 people.

    Per capita mushroom consumption in Iran stands at 1-1.2 kilograms—lower than the global average of 2 kilograms and Europe’s average of 4 kilograms.

    Currently, more than 20 types of mushrooms are commercially cultivated worldwide, with China, the US, the Netherlands, France and Poland being the biggest producers.

  11. #131
    History of mushroom consumption and its impact on traditional view on mycobiota – an example from Poland

    For millennia, fungi have been known by various communities as a valuable source of nutrition and medicines, however traditional view on mycobiota has changed throughout the history.

    A major role in this context played past scholars and scientists whose impact on attitude towards mushroom collection is also seen in our times. Their confrontation with traditional folk knowledge on mycobiota could be the cause of current division between mycophobic and mycophillic nations.

    The aim of this article is to present these changes from the perspective of Polish nation, which is currently considered as highly mycophillic.

    The visible change in scholars’ attitude towards fungi and acceptance of folk view on mushrooms took place not earlier than at the turn of XVIIIth and XIXth century. Long scientific reluctance to fungal kingdom has caused that knowledge about wild edible fungi is still limited and we still have broadly explore the world of fungi.

    With the right approach, mushrooms are able to provide us with many, possibly yet unknown benefits.

  12. #132
    Cultivating Truffles

    Vineyards join culinary craze for the finicky fungi

  13. #133
    Nairobi mushroom boom

    White mushrooms in purple punnets sit are looking great on the shelves of the Naivas supermarket in Nairobi. The mushrooms are the handiwork of Maurice Ikonya and tens of other young farmers, who supply them through their association to the retail chain.

    The supermarket is one of the main customers of the Mushroom Growers Association of Kenya, of which Ikonya is the vice-chairman. “We get 250-300kg of mushrooms every week from our 100 members in 23 counties and distribute them to supermarkets and hotels where we are listed as suppliers,” he says.

    Maurice Ikonya’s mushroom farm in Kangemi, Nairobi, hosts some 300 plastic bags with 645-665 mushroom plants at various stages of growth. Inside the mud-walled structure, Ikonya grows the mushrooms in plastic bags. Some of them are neatly arranged on the floor and others on wooden shelves he has erected.

    “I started the business over a year ago with Sh150,000 from my savings,” says Ikonya, who holds a Diploma in Project Management from the Kenya Institute of Management Studies. “The money was enough to purchase 50 bales of wheat straw, cotton seed cake, molasses, urea and chicken manure to make the substrate on which the mushrooms grow.” reports that besides the Naivas supermarket, the mushrooms are also sold at Jacaranda Hotel and groceries in Nairobi, but Ikonya and the rest of the members of the association are currently spreading wings to Nakuru, Kajiado, Kisumu and Laikipia.

  14. #134
    Common fungi can breathe life back into land rendered barren near mining sites

    Massive stretches of land near mining sites that have been rendered barren due to toxic and heavy metals can potentially turned lush green and fertile. In a major breakthrough using a commonly found fungi, MS University scientists are confident that such land can be actually turned fertile. The experiment was carried out to reclaim the mining wasteland at Kadipani in Vadodara district, the largest deposit of flourspar in India.

    Scientists of Department of Environmental Studies successfully planted maize and moong plants with four soil combinations – normal garden soil, 50:50 % garden soil and mining soil, 75% normal and 25% mining soil with trichoderma, and 100% mining soil on the campus’ botanical garden.

    “We found that barren mining soil could be made fertile using trichoderma, a commonly found fungi that acts as a growth promoter as well as biocontrol agent,” said professor Arun Arya, who along with research scholar Ankita Bhatt had carried out the research project.

    In Gujarat alone, nearly 12,000 hectares of land is under mining.

    “Trichoderma removes stress in the plants which helps in their growth. This shows that the fungi can help plants grow in mining wasteland,” he said, adding that the plants will be developed into trees and transplanted at the site.

    “Biomass of seedlings and chlorophyll contents of the raised plants revealed that plantation in mining land is possible. There was more than 50% change in the biomass of the plants,” he added.

    Earlier experiments to at Kadipani failed because normal plants were directly planted at the site.

    The project was funded by Gujarat’s forest department with the support of Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation (GMDC) which is mining the mineral fluorspar by opencast mining method where in large tracts of land are excavated to extract materials.

    At Kadipani, fluorspar ore is processed to produce calcium fluoride concentrate that acts as a raw material for manufacturing of hydrofluoric acid, refrigerant gases, aluminium fluoride, synthetic cryolite, fluorine chemicals and flux in metallurgical industries.

    Fluorspar is widely used in steel making, manufacturing of HF, teflon, fluorocarbon and agricultural and metallurgical industries.

  15. #135
    Spain is the world's largest truffle producer

    “Truffles are currently grown and purchased from different markets and producers in order to supply all customers. This product is consumed in the US, Japan, the United Arab Emirates, etc. There are plantations even in Australia and Argentina which yield positive results, especially in the former. This helps extend the campaign, which is not always positive, as it is a seasonal product that is not in demand all year round,” says Daniel Puig Roca, manager of Trufas del Maestrazgo.

  16. #136
    Northeast fungi trek at Mumbai film festival

    Planet Fungi — North East India, a documentary on the journey to discover 34 species of fungi across the Northeast, has been selected for screening at the prestigious 8th Mumbai Shorts International Film Festival on December 8.

    The documentary, written and directed by Catherine Marciniak, senior features reporter with ABC North Coast, Australia, in collaboration with Balipara Foundation, depicts the journey of documenting the fungi species in the forests of the eastern Himalayas, primarily the Northeast.

  17. #137
    Stunning Super Macro Photos of Minuscule Mushrooms and Fungi

    If you’ve ever taken a walk in the woods, especially after a rain storm, you’ve definitely walked by one of photographer Alison Pollack‘s subjects. You may have even stepped on one. But unless you had a magnifying glass handy, you never even knew they were there.

    Pollack specializes in super macro photography of fungi and Myxomycetes, and her Instagram account is full of stunning photos of these minuscule mushrooms (well, sometimes mushrooms) blown up large enough so that you can see what you’re missing when you tread your way through the woods.

  18. #138
    Mushrooms are having a moment

    They’re popping up in papads, jams and cakes; as health boosts in bread and coffee; and in urban gardens

  19. #139
    Living fungi is the medium for students' traditional Chinese landscape art

    Five university students studying biology in East China's Anhui Province, spent months learning how to use living fungi as a medium for their works of art that depict traditional Chinese landscapes, some of which feature the expanse of the Great Wall.

    According to a video posted by Pear Video, the works of art are made on a board with a growing medium for fungi of different colors that are used to depict cranes, pine trees, mountains and the Great Wall.

    The students used brushes to "paint" fungi spores on the broad and then waited for them to grow.

    The students said they made "countless" failed attempts to make a fungi "painting." They had trouble making the fungi grow in the shape they wanted or produce the right colors.

    One of the students, Chen Bosong, told the media that it takes about nine months to cultivate the fungi, and some fungi take longer to grow than others and have different growing seasons.

  20. #140
    After Cannabis, Is The Next Startup Boom Mushrooms?

    Psychedelics are following a similar trajectory to cannabis -- and investors are taking notice.

    As it turns out, cannabis has become a gateway drug -- just not exactly in the way after-school specials warned decades ago. Rather, its legalization has opened up avenues for psychedelics to follow, while the marijuana boom has alerted investors to the potential rewards of selling other once-illicit drugs.

    It helps that hallucinogens are also having a cultural “moment,” and it’s no longer just counterculture icons and college kids who are experimenting. These days, parents are taking mushrooms to better connect with their children. Silicon Valley tech executives are micro-dosing as a mind-hack to boost creativity. Cancer patients are taking psilocybin, a chemical component of mushrooms, to break free from depression and anxiety.

    The resurgent buzz surrounding hallucinogens extends to medical researchers, too. The number of published academic papers discussing psilocybin more than doubled between 2013 and 2018, following decades when such drugs were all but ignored. While LSD, psilocybin, MDMA and most other psychedelics remain Schedule I restricted drugs, making them exceedingly difficult to access even for scientists, interest in research has experienced a marked uptick.

    Meanwhile, psychedelics users have become evangelists, paying for studies that governments and Big Pharma won’t touch. Similarly, investors are also awakening to the mind-enhancing effects of psychedelic experiences -- or at least the profit to be made from them. Those who cashed in on the cannabis boom (and perhaps some who missed it) are looking for the next big wave to catch, and are betting on psychedelics.

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